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A-Z of Conditions 2

A-Z of Mental Health Conditions

Mental Health Conditions, also referred to as mental health disorders, illness, problems, or issues, encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions that affect your mood, thinking, and behaviour. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders, and addictive behaviors. Many people experience mental health concerns occasionally. However, these concerns become mental illnesses when ongoing signs and symptoms cause significant stress and impact your ability to function. Mental illness can lead to significant distress and create difficulties in daily life, such as at school, work, or in relationships.

Agoraphobia is a complex anxiety disorder characterised by an intense fear of being in situations where escape might be difficult or help wouldn’t be available if things go wrong. This fear often leads to the avoidance of various places and activities, not just open spaces as commonly assumed. Individuals with agoraphobia may be terrified of travelling on public transport, visiting shopping centres, or even leaving their homes. When faced with these stressful situations, they may experience panic attack symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, hyperventilation, and nausea. To cope, they might rely heavily on companions or avoid these scenarios altogether.

Some symptoms of Agoraphobia may include:

Physical Symptoms:
– Rapid heartbeat
– Rapid breathing (hyperventilating)
– Feeling hot and sweaty
– Feeling sick
– Chest pain
– Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
– Diarrhoea
– Trembling
– Dizziness
– Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)

Cognitive Symptoms:
– Fear of embarrassment during a panic attack
– Fear that a panic attack will be life-threatening
– Fear of being unable to escape from a place or situation
– Fear of losing sanity or control in public
– Fear of people staring at you
– Fear of trembling and blushing in front of others
– Feeling unable to function without help
– Fear of being alone at home (monophobia)
– General feelings of anxiety or dread

Behavioural Symptoms:
– Avoiding situations that might trigger panic attacks, like crowded places and public transport
– Being housebound for extended periods
– Needing a trusted person to accompany you when going out
– Avoiding being far from home

Which therapies may help?

– Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)


Anorexia is a severe mental health condition affecting attitudes and behaviours towards the consumption of food, anorexia can affect both women and men. People suffering from anorexia tend to have a crippling worry of becoming fat and do not see their bodies for how they truly are, with many sufferers wrongly believing that they are overweight when they are not. People with anorexia may additionally minimise their weight by limiting the meals that they eat, making themselves vomit, and exercising an excessive amount. Anorexia has truly dangerous outcomes for sufferers physical and mental health. People suffering from anorexia often disguise their behaviour from loved ones. Common symptoms of anorexia encompass:

• Missing food, ingesting minimal amounts of food, or actively avoiding specific foods.

• Obsessively counting calories in meals

• Leaving the table immediately after ingesting with the intention to vomit

• Taking laxatives and hunger suppressants

• Physical issues such as feeling lightheaded or dizzy, hair loss or dry pores and skin

• Repeated weighing and checking ones reflection in the mirror.

Individuals affected by anorexia might also be afflicted by several different mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and self-harm.

Which therapies may help?

• Psychiatric management

• Cognitive-behavioural remedy (CBT)

• Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)

• Schema therapy (ST)

• Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT)

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactive disorder refers to a group of behavioural signs and symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Although ADHD issues are typically identified in children, adults also can also suffer from it. If you battle to concentrate or stay focused on obligations, regularly act on impulse, and experience problems regulating your behaviour in response to certain situations, you could suffer from ADHD.

Common signs and symptoms of ADHD:

• Short attention span or being easily distracted

• Restlessness

• Constant fidgeting or overactivity

• Inability to deal with stress or to keep mood

• Disorganisation – such as misplacing things

• Impulsive behaviour – which includes immoderate spending

If you suffer from ADHD, you might additionally have issues sleeping and might suffer from anxiety issues. If you believe you experience any of the above symptoms, a combination of medication and therapy can significantly enhance your daily functioning.

Which types of therapy are appropriate?

• Cognitive-behavioural remedy

• Stress discount

• Behavioural education


Bereavement is the name given to describe the sense of loss we experience when a cherished one passes away. When you are grieving, it is ordinary to experience various emotions including unhappiness, anger, anxiety, and guilt, however now and again bereavement may be particularly overwhelming or uncover emotions which might be difficult to control. If you’re experiencing ‘complicated bereavement’, you will find yourself withdrawn, irritated, and experiencing symptoms of depression.

Some signs of typical bereavement include:

• Intense sorrow

• Focus on little else but the loss of a loved one

• Extreme consciousness on reminders of the loved one or avoidance of reminders

• Difficulties accepting the death

• Numbness and/or detachment

• Feeling that life has no meaning • Irritability or agitation

• Lack of trust in others

• Inability to experience existence or think back on advantageous experiences with the one you love

If those symptoms don’t improve over time, it might be beneficial to explore therapeutic options. Some of the signs and symptoms that your bereavement might be more complex and requiring treatment could be:

• Having trouble carrying out day-to-day tasks.

• Withdrawal from social activities

• Depression

• Thoughts of guilt or self-blame

• Persistent thoughts of blame and that you could have prevented their passing.

• Loss of a sense of purpose and self-worth.

• Feeling that life is not worth living without your loved one.

• Wish that you had died with your loved one.

If you experience those symptoms, therapy may help you come to terms with your loss and aid you in reforming your life.

Which treatments would possibly help?

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy

• Psychodynamic remedy

• Dynamic interpersonal remedy

• Acceptance and dedication remedy

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating disorder is a mental health sickness affecting an individual’s attitudes and behaviours relating to the consumption of meals, this disorder can have harmful consequences for both bodily and intellectual health. People with binge consuming problems eat more meals than other people would in a similar time period and often have no control over how much they eat during an episode. Individuals may experience these symptoms; extremely speedy consumption, past feeling full, still eating when no longer hungry, eat in secret to cover the quantity this is being eaten, or experience a terrible feeling after a binge, you could be afflicted by binge eating disorder.

In order to meet the prognosis for the sickness, you should experience a minimum 3 of the aforementioned symptoms every week for 3 months.

Which therapies might help?

• Cognitive-behavioural remedy (CBT)

• Modified dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT).

Bipolar Disorder

Previously referred to as manic depression, people suffering from bipolar disorder experience shifts in mood from extreme low moods to intense high moods, with a few patients never experiencing ‘regular’ temper. If you experience periods of depression alternated with intervals of overactivity and emotions of euphoria, each of which can last several weeks, you may be suffering from bipolar disorder.

Common symptoms of depression/low mood:

• Sadness

• Uncontrollable crying

• Anxiety

• Loss of interest or amusement in sports

• Withdrawal from family and friends

• Excessive guilt

• Suicidal mind and urges

Common symptoms of euphoria include:

• Increased energy

• Unusual talkativeness

• Racing thoughts

• Little want for sleep

• Inflated self esteem

• Spending sprees

Bipolar disorder can be classed bipolar I (manic episodes) or bipolar II (hypomanic episodes). The foremost distinction among mania and hypomania is the severity of the manic segment.

If you feel that the above applies to you, therapy in addition to medication can extremely enhance your daily functioning and improve your quality of life.

Which treatment plans could help?

Cognitive behavioural therapy can assist a person with bipolar symptoms and learn how to recognise when a temper shift is about to occur. CBT can also help someone with bipolar sickness stick to a therapy plan to reduce the chances of relapse.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a developmental disease that substantially disrupts a person’s potential to alter their emotions, manage their actions, and shape solid interpersonal relationships.

Unfortunately, BPD is often misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder, while in BPD adjustments in temper and mood occur much more frequently. The individual’s mood can often differ substantially just in a single day.

To be diagnosed with BPD the person may exhibit any 5 of the following symptoms:

• Fear of abandonment

• Unstable or converting relationships

• Unstable self-image; struggles with identity

• Impulsive self-adverse behaviours (immoderate spending, dangerous sex, substance misuse, binge consuming and others)

• Suicidal behaviour or self-harm

• Mood instability with numerous mood swings

• Feelings of emptiness

• Difficulties with anger, consisting of common loss of temper or fighting

• Stress related paranoia or dissociation

If you feel that the above applies to you, it’s critical to consultant a specialist to diagnose you effectively as human beings with BPD regularly also experience other disorders such as depression, anxiety, substance misuse or eating problems.

If you are suffering from BPD, specialist therapy can greatly improve your day-to-day functioning and quality of life.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a form of anxiety affecting someone’s image. People affected by this disorder have a distorted view of their own appearance, and generally tend to fixate on elements of their face or body that they believe are unattractive or ‘wrong’. Because of those core beliefs, they generally tend to spend a significant time worried about their appearance, however body dysmorphia disorder is a serious mental health condition, consequently sufferers are not merely vain or self-obsessed. If you find yourself continuously comparing your appearance to others, spending numerous times looking to hide supposed personal defects, or becoming distressed by a certain area of your body, you may be suffering from body dysmorphia disorder.

Other symptoms include:

• Spending lots of time in the front of the mirror or steering clear of mirrors altogether

• Feeling worried whilst around other people and averting social situations

• Being overly worried regarding requesting help of fear that they’ll be seen to be self-obsessed

• Seeking clinical remedy for the perceived defect which include cosmetic surgical procedure

• Excessive food regimen and exercise

Although BDD is different to OCD, there are similarities between the 2 problems, as each involve compulsive behaviours. BDD also can result in depression, self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

If you experience the above symptoms, therapy can significantly enhance your self-esteem, well-being, and quality of life.

Which treatment plans may assist?

• Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

• Schema Therapy

• Cognitive Analytic Therapy

• Cognitive Behavioural Therapy


Bulimia is an eating disorder and mental health condition characterised by cycles of binge eating and purging. Individuals with bulimia consume large amounts of food in a short time (binge eating) and then attempt to rid their body of the extra food (purging) by inducing vomiting, using laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or exercising excessively. This disorder is more common in young people aged 15 to 25. The intense fear of gaining weight and a critical attitude towards body shape often accompany bulimia, leading to significant psychological and physical distress.

Signs of Bulimia

Behavioural Signs:
– Binge eating large amounts of food in a short period
– Purging through vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise
– Fear of gaining weight
– Being highly critical of one’s weight and body shape
– Mood changes, such as feeling tense or anxious
– Preoccupation with thoughts about food
– Feelings of guilt, shame, and secretive behavior
– Avoiding social activities involving food
– Feeling out of control over eating habits

Physical Signs:
– Feeling tired
– Sore throat from vomiting
– Bloating or stomach pain
– Puffy face
– Self-harming behaviours

Which types of therapy are appropriate?

– Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
– Family Therapy (For Children)
– Nutritional Counselling
– Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)

Bulimia is a serious condition requiring comprehensive treatment and support to achieve recovery and improve overall well-being.


Claustrophobia is the irrational fear of confined spaces. Individuals with claustrophobia often go out of their way to avoid places such as lifts, tunnels, tube trains, and public toilets. However, this avoidance can reinforce the fear. The severity of anxiety experienced in confined spaces can vary, with some people feeling mild anxiety and others experiencing severe anxiety or panic attacks. Claustrophobia affects about 10% of the UK population during their lifetime, and panic attacks associated with it can be very frightening and distressing.

Symptoms of Claustrophobia

Psychological Symptoms:
– Overwhelming feelings of anxiety in confined spaces
– Panic attacks
– Fear of losing control
– Fear of fainting
– Fear of dying
– Feeling a need to escape

Physical Symptoms:
– Sweating
– Trembling
– Hot flushes or chills
– Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
– A choking sensation
– Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
– Chest pain or tightness
– Sensation of butterflies in the stomach
– Feeling sick
– Headaches and dizziness
– Feeling faint
– Numbness or pins and needles
– Dry mouth
– Need to go to the toilet
– Ringing in the ears
– Feeling confused or disorientated

Therapy Treatments for Claustrophobia

– Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Claustrophobia is a treatable condition, and with the right therapy and support, individuals can manage their fear and improve their quality of life.


We all feel sad occasionally, whether or not it be in reaction to a provoking circumstance or for no reason at all. However, if you are feeling this way for weeks or months, as opposed to just a few days, you will be suffering with depression.

Although depression can affect humans in very specific ways and there are varying degrees of severity, some commonplace signs and symptoms of depression include:

• Continuous low temper or disappointment

• Feeling hopeless or helpless

• Feeling tearful

• Feeling guilt-ridden

• Feeling irritable and intolerant of other people

• Having no motivation or interests

• Feeling indecisive

• Not getting amusement out of life

• Feeling anxious or concerned

• Having suicidal thoughts or thoughts of harming your self

• Lack of energy or interest in sex

• Change in appetite

• Disturbed sleep

However, symptoms might be specific to the type of depression you are experiencing as there are several classifications consisting of:

• Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

• Bipolar disorder

• Post-natal depression

If you suspect you are experiencing depression, a mixture of medication and therapy has been established to be the most effective treatment for depression.

Which treatments may help?

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy

• Acceptance and commitment therapy

• Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

• Cognitive analytic therapy

Types of Therapy

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative Disorders are a range of conditions that cause disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, and perception, leading to physical and psychological problems. These disorders can be short-lived, often following a traumatic event, and resolve within weeks or months. However, they can also persist for much longer periods.

Symptoms of Dissociative Disorders

Psychological and Emotional Symptoms:
– Feeling disconnected from yourself and the world around you
– Forgetting certain time periods, events, and personal information
– Feeling uncertain about your identity
– Having multiple distinct identities
– Feeling little or no physical pain

Physical Symptoms:
– Seizures that vary from fainting to those resembling epileptic seizures

Dissociation is the mind’s way of coping with excessive stress. Periods of dissociation can last from hours or days to much longer periods such as weeks or months. Many individuals with dissociative disorders have experienced traumatic events during childhood, with dissociation serving as a coping mechanism.

Many individuals with dissociative disorders make a full recovery with appropriate treatment and support.

– Counselling or Psychotherapy

– Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)

Dissociative disorders are complex but treatable conditions. With the right therapy and support, many people can achieve significant recovery and improve their quality of life.

Hoarding Disorder
Postpartum Psychosis
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Panic Attack
Postnatal Depression

More than simply the ‘baby blues’ that many women experience for some weeks after giving birth, postnatal depression is a serious mental health condition that commonly affects women but also can affect their partners. This type of depression occurs during pregnancy or after birth. Feelings of severe sadness, anxiety, and tiredness can make it difficult for new mothers to complete everyday activities for themselves or for their babies.

Some of the usual signs of postnatal depression include:

• Persistent feeling of unhappiness or low mood

• Loss of interest with the world around you and no longer taking part in activities

• Lack of energy and feeling tired most of the time

• Feeling that you are unable to look after your child

• Problems concentrating and making choices

• Loss of appetite or increased urge for food

• Feelings of guilt, hopelessness, and guilt

• Difficulty bonding with your infant with a sense of indifference towards the child and no enjoyment in the child’s company.

• Frightening thoughts such as wishing to hurt your toddler, these can be very frightening and traumatic, but they are not often acted upon Thinking about self-harm and suicide

If you feel that the above applies to you, it is vital to seek help as quickly as possible because the symptoms could have a considerable effect on you and your child. With an appropriate therapy, most women make a full recovery.

Which treatments could help?

• Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

• Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety ailment that can develop in response to experiencing a severely worrying situation. Some examples of traumatic events that would promote PTSD include natural disasters, terror assaults, violence, abuse, severe neglect, or traffic incidents, however a traumatic event may be any experience wherein you’re in danger, or you witness someone else in danger. People tormented by PTSD frequently relive the triggering event through nightmares and/or flashbacks that could arise at any time. The unpleasantness and severity of their signs and symptoms can make it very hard for sufferers to go about their day-to-day lives. Although symptoms commonly occur right after the event, people who’ve experienced abuse, neglect, or violence, can also experience complex PTSD, in which adolescent trauma may cause PTSD symptoms years later.

PTSD symptoms include:

• Re-experiencing such events as flashbacks, nightmares, repetitive images and bodily sensations (consisting of nausea, ache, sweating, or trembling)

• Avoidance and emotional numbing

• Hyper-arousal together with irritability, irritated outbursts, sleeping problems, trouble concentrating

Sometimes people stricken by PTSD can suffer from other emotional problems which includes anxiety, melancholy, self-harm or engage in substance abuse.

If you feel that the above applies to you, therapy will allow you to overcome your situation and greatly enhance your quality of life.

Which therapies may help?

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)

• Schema therapy (ST)

• Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)

Psychosexual Conditions

Psychosexual issues are sexual troubles that have a physiological foundation, and they are far more common than you might suppose. Although there are many causes, psychosexual issues can come about as a result of stress, anxiety, depression, or due to previous traumatic experiences. Issues can range in intensity and duration; some may be simple and fleeting while other psychosexual issues can be more long-term.

Some examples of psychosexual issues include:

• Loss of libido

• Painful intercourse

• Difficulties achieving orgasm

• Arousal problems

• Erectile dysfunction

• Premature ejaculation

• Breakdown in a couple’s sexual relationship

If you feel that the above applies to you, therapy will allow you to recognize the underlying causes of your problems and triumph over them by putting steps in place to manage such difficulties.

Which therapies would possibly assist?

A variety of treatment and therapy options are available for those suffering from psychosexual issues, our advice would be to consult one of our medical professionals to discuss the most appropriate course of action.

Selective Mutism

Selective mutism is an anxiety disorder where an individual is unable to speak in specific social situations, such as with classmates at school or with relatives they do not see often. This condition typically begins in childhood and, if untreated, can continue into adulthood. The inability to speak is not a choice but a response triggered by anxiety and panic, making speech impossible in certain scenarios. Over time, individuals with selective mutism may avoid situations that provoke this reaction. However, they can speak freely with close family and friends when the anxiety-inducing triggers are absent.

Symptoms of Selective Mutism

– Marked contrast in communication: Ability to speak comfortably with close family and friends but not with others.
– Sudden stillness and frozen facial expression: Visible reaction when expected to speak to someone outside their comfort zone.
– Avoidance behaviours: Avoiding eye contact, appearing nervous, uneasy, socially awkward, rude, disinterested, or sulky.
– Clinginess: Displaying clingy behaviour in social situations.
– Shyness and withdrawal: Appearing shy, withdrawn, stiff, tense, or poorly coordinated.
– Stubbornness or aggression: Exhibiting temper tantrums after school or anger when questioned by parents.
– Non-verbal communication: More confident children may use gestures like nodding for “yes” or shaking their head for “no.”
– Severe avoidance of communication: Severely affected children may avoid any form of communication—spoken, written, or gestured.

What therapies may help?

– Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
– Behavioural Therapy

Sleep Disorders

We all have problem falling asleep now and again, especially if we are feeling particularly stressed. However, regular and satisfactory sleep is critical, as while we sleep, our bodies physically and mentally restore themselves, permitting us to go about our busy lives. If sleep issues are a regular occurrence, you may be suffering from a sleep disorder, and left untreated, this could have a harmful impact on your daily functioning. One of the most common varieties of sleep disorders is insomnia which is characterized by way of an inability to sleep or sleep well at night.

Some commonplace signs of insomnia include:

• Difficulty falling asleep at night or going to sleep again after waking during the night

• Waking up frequently for the duration of the night

• You are reliant upon medication to sleep

• Sleepiness and low energy during the day

• Sleep feels unrefreshing and you wake up feeling worn-out

• There also are other forms of sleep disorders including sleep apnoea, restless leg syndrome and narcolepsy.

If you feel that the above applies to you, therapy can greatly help to enhance your ‘sleep hygiene’ and your therapist can teach you powerful strategies for managing your sleep.

Which treatment options might assist?

• Cognitive behavioural remedy (CBT)


Stress is the body’s way of responding to certain situations which may be demanding or that can be threatening, including financial difficulties, issues at work, or relationship troubles. When we experience a threat, our bodies shift into ‘fight or flight’ mode wherein they release stress hormones to prepare for emergency movement to defend us from the threat. If someone is not able to differentiate between daily stress and life-threatening occasions, this could result in severe and/or common stress issues and a lack of ability to control it effectively can cause further problems and become debilitating. Many health troubles can be exacerbated by stress.

Some of the common symptoms of stress include:

• Memory issues

• Inability to pay attention

• Anxious or racing mind

• Constant fear

• Irritability or quick mood

• Feeling overwhelmed

• Moodiness

• Aches and pains

• Chest pains

• Procrastination or neglecting responsibilities

• Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting)

If you feel that you are experiencing intense or frequent stress, therapy can assist you in understanding causes of stress and help you become aware of what elements might be making your stress worse. Your therapist can also teach you powerful techniques to manipulate your stress, including relaxation strategies, in an effort to greatly improve your quality of life.

Which remedies would possibly help?

• Cognitive behavioural therapy

Work Related Stress

Employment can have many substantial benefits for your mental health because it provides you with a structured routine, an income, and opportunities to succeed. However, on occasion problems at work can be a source of great stress.

Stress is the body’s way of responding to certain situations which may be demanding or that can be threatening. When we experience a threat, our bodies shift into ‘fight or flight’ mode wherein they release stress hormones to prepare for emergency movement to defend us from the threat. Being under a degree of pressure is normal and occasionally a feeling of stress may be a very good motivator to efficiently finish a piece of work for example. However, tight cut-off dates, lengthy hours, tough colleagues, and endless tasks can inflict severe and/or frequent stress that can be overwhelming. This pressure can affect your productiveness and work performance, harm your physical and mental health, and impair your relationships.

Some of the signs of stress include:

• Memory issues

• Inability to pay attention

• Anxious or racing mind

• Constant worry

• Irritability or short temper

• Feeling overwhelmed

• Moodiness

• Aches and pains

• Chest pains

• Procrastination or neglecting responsibilities

• Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)

If you feel that you are experiencing intense or frequent stress, therapy can assist you in understanding causes of stress and help you become aware of what elements might be making your stress worse. Your therapist can also teach you powerful techniques to manipulate your stress, including relaxation strategies, in an effort to greatly improve your quality of life.

Which treatment options may assist?

• Cognitive behavioural therapy

For more information about the types of therapies we have available, please click here.

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